Regulating AI
Erevan MALROUX, Alexis LEAUTIER, Charlotte BAROT et Nicolas BERKOUK

Objectif du cours

This short course aims to unveil the ethical and regulatory shadows accompanying the development and use of AI techniques. It seeks to stimulate critical thinking and provide the necessary tools, frameworks, and perspectives required to navigate these uncharted territories.


Technological advancements never happen out of the void : they are always the product of some socio-economic conditions, therefore incorporating with them normative values and certain ways of conceiving the world. Given the extreme scale and speed at which AI is being developed and deployed, it is crucial to critically question the way it is shaping society. In particular, it frequently raises novel questions and systemic risks, such as discriminatory bias, skewed representations of the world, lack of diversity, and the amplification of inequalities. These threats need to be kept in mind and cannot be solely addressed by regulators.


The course is structured with three primary objectives:

  1. First, it endeavours to explore and categorise the diverse risks stemming from the development and deployment of AI. It is crucial to comprehend their extent and scope through a general typology to support thoughts and discussions.
  2. Second, the course aims to understand and question how to shape regulations to address these concerns. In particular, it sheds light on the philosophy, purpose, content, and limitations of the applicable regulations.
  3. Third, the course focuses on two European examples of regulations closely aligned with the challenges posed by artificial intelligence systems, namely the data protection regulation (already in force) and the AI Act (currently being drafted).


The foundation of this course lies in practical reflections on concretely illustrated key issues, fostering an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses legal, technical, scientific, and other perspectives. This approach reflects the variety of stakeholders needed to shape the ethical future of artificial intelligence.

Organisation des séances

4 séances de 3h



Mode de validation

Prepared debate: 40% of the overall grade

* Oral presentations: Two groups of 3 to 4 students each, arguing with another during a session

– Each side must defend its position during a short presentation (7min each),

– There first side can make a very short response (3min);

* One common written summary under the form of a short report at (4 pages maximum).

The evaluation will not be based on the “opinion”, but on:

  • completeness of arguments,
  • anticipation of opposing arguments, and
  • clarity of presentation and conciseness.


Multiple choice questionnaire on the course material : 60% of the overall grade

Thèmes abordés

Ethics of artificial intelligence ; regulation

Les intervenants





Charlotte BAROT




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